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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE j, ^ 
MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATION No. 361 



WASHINGTON, D. C. 



MAY 1940 



DESCRIPTIONS OF TYPES OF 

PRINCIPAL AMERICAN VARIETIES OF 

ORANGE-FLESHED CARROTS 



Prepared jointly by specialists of the United States 

Department of Agriculture, Cornell University, and 

the Experiment Stations of California, Louisiana, 

Minnesota, Texas, and Virginia 




L 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. 



Price H cent?* 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATION No. 361 



Washington, D. C. 



MAY 1940 



DESCRIPTIONS OF TYPES OF PRINCIPAL AMERICAN VARIETIES OF 

ORANGE-FLESHED CARROTS 



By Roy Magrcder, ah ricvlturist, and Victor R. Boswell, principal horticulturist, Division of Fruit and Vegetable Crops ami l)i ■< a. -a , 
Bureau of Plant Industry; S. L. Emsweller, 1 formerly assistant olericulturist, California Agricultural Experiment Station; J. C. 
Miller, horticulturist, Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station; A. E. Htjtchins, instructor in horticulture, University of 
Minnesota; J. F. Wood, horticulturist, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station; M. M. Parker, horticulturist, Virginia Truck 
Experiment Station, and H. H. Zimherley, director, Virginia Truck Experiment Station 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Introduction 1 

Object and results of type studies 1 

Supplemental varietal descriptions contemplated 2 

Method of procedure 2 

Important considerations in comparing carrot varieties 

or strains with type descriptions or standards 4 

Influence of environment on plant and varietal char- 
acteristics 4 

Influence of environment on germination 4 

Influence of environment on foliage color 4 

Influence of environment on foliage size 5 

Influence of environment on root weight 5 

Influence of environment on plant size 5 

Influence of environment on root shape. 5 

Influence of environment on root color G 



Page 
Developmental history of shape and color of carrot 

roots 7 

Distinguishing varietal characteristics 8 

French Forcing 10 

Scarlet Horn. _ . _. 13 

Nantes 16 

Red Core Chantenay 22 

Dan vers 28 

Imperator 32 

Long Orange 36 

Oxheart 40 

Literature cited 46 

Index to varietal names 47 



INTRODUCTION 



This publication is the fifth of a series dealing with 

descriptions of types of the principal varieties of vege- 
tables grown in the United States. It is published in 
response to the needs of seedsmen, produce merchants, 
vegetable canners, and growers for an adequate, ac- 
curate, and generally accepted description of varietal 
characteristics. The sustained interest, generous co- 



operation, and constructive criticisms of these groups 
have immeasurably helped the Department and the 
cooperating State experiment stations in initiating and 
carrying forward this work. The authors gratefully 
acknowledge the assistance given them by the above- 
mentioned agencies and by their colleagues and asso- 
ciates. 



OBJECT AND RESULTS OF TYPE STUDIES 



As the title suggests, the object of this publication is 
to describe as accurately and definitely as possible the 
general form or plan of structure of the most important 
varieties of orange-fleshed carrots (Daucus carota L. var. 
saliva DC.) grown in the United States at the time this 
study was made (1931-35). Insofar as possible, in- 
formation is also given on the relative importance of 
varieties for specific purposes and geographical regions, 



their resistance to diseases and insects, and their reaction 

to different environments. 

Since the better plants were selected for description 
and illustration, these descriptions are somew hat 
idealistic and in that sense a standard of perfection to be 
sought after, rather than a description of the better 
stocks as they existed at the time this work was done. 
Illustrations of random samples from the most uniform 



1 The names of the joint authors who collaborated in the several States are listed according to the alphabetical order of the names of the cooperating institutions ;v< a matter 
ofconvenience, since it is not possible to list them in any order of rank or seniority. This publication represents the joint efforts Oi all the authors, aided by the criticisms and 
suggestions of tin- \ arious agencies referred to herein. 

159234°— 40 1 1 



MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATION 361, 1 B DEPABTMENT 01 M SB* I I n i:i. 



stock of each variet; available are presented to indii Bj makingit possible to identifj or classify varieties 

the nature and degree of \ ariation between it and the bj reference to a standard \ arietj or t.\ pe, the practice 

type or standard description. of renaming Btandard varieties or substituting othear 

It is hoped thai these descriptions maj serve as o varieties with incorrect labeling will be disc 'aged. If 

ndard for varietal identification, classification, and all stocks of a given varietj name conform to the stand- 
nomenclature. Such a catalog of characteristics of the ard or type herein described, the buyer can order bj 
principal or standard varieties should prove of value in name with confidence thai the desired type will be 
mnny wa ys ,,, .,n persons interested in the crop, from secured. It is highly desirable to establish such con- 
the seed producer to the vegetable consumer. fidence. The introduction, acceptance, and use of 
Provided with a knowledge of the salient features of valuable new varieties and strains maj be facilitated by 
,..,,. I, variety, the ultimate user, seedsman, canner, indicating their points of difference from or superioritj 
grower, or shipper will be able to intelligently determine over the standard varietj thai thej resemble mosl 
,l„. b es '| varietj for his particular needs. This intelli- closely. Planl breeders will also be interested in the 

genl selection should tend to c sentrate demand on ensemble of characters which constitute the principal 

the mosl valuable varieties and to reduce the demand varieties and may have direction given to their efforts 

for inferior ones, resulting in the gradual elimination of bj a studj of the importance of differenl characteristics 
,l„. latter. The local Beed merchanl could soon reduce Acceptance ol these descriptions as type standards 

his lisl of varieties to those besl suited to his locality and attainmenl of the desirable objectives outlined 

an d thereby eliminate a number of unprofitable items above is entirely dependenl upon the voluntary action 

from his catalog and his store. Reduction in number of everyone concerned. The intense interesl exhibited 

f varieties would also enable the Beed producer to in the work and the splendid spirit of cooperation 

devote n Hire time and attention to the comparatively evidenced on .-ill sides augur well for speedy consumma- 

few important varieties, with consequenl improvemenl tion of the informal cooperation necessary to achieve 

in the quality of commercial Btocks. these objectives. 

SUPPLEMENTAL VARIETAL DESCRIPTIONS CONTEMPLATED 



Since the initiation of this work, a number of new and 
distincl strains, varieties, or tj pes have been introduced 
i,, the trade bu1 have no1 been Bufficientlj tested to 
warrant their acceptance as principal varieties al this 
time. If. in the future, a number of these new intro- 
ductions are Bufficientlj differenl and importanl to 
warrant principal Btatus, it is planned thai a separate 
publication describing the new standard types will be 
issued. 

To warranl a new varietal name, the planl introduced 
-In. did be differenl in one or more easilj recognized or 
easilj determined characters and preferably Bhould 
contain Borne characteristic of superiority over existing 
varieties. Merc difference in a minor character Bhould 
nol !"• considered sufficient reason for a new name or 
for perpetuating the new Btock or strain. 

( in il ther hand, a new and distincl improvemenl 

cognized as Buch bj gn ing the introduction 
b new m • rather than l>\ graduallj substituting il 



under the name of a standard variety, a practice which 
invariably leads to confusion and distrust. Red Core 
Chantenay is an example of a -train sufficiently different 
in an important commercial character to warranl the 
new name, although it is being Bold in a greal many 
instances under the old mime of Chantenay. In this 
case the informative feature of the name i- more im- 
portant than l>iv\ ii\ . 

1 1 should nol be interred thai this lisl of principal 
varieties meet- perfectly all the possible requirements 
..i the trade. A careful Btudy of the descriptions will 
reveal the desirabilitj of manj improvements in the 
presenl varieties that can and will probably be mad.- in 
future varieties. Rather than impede progress in the 
developmenl of new varieties, an unbiased catalog <>f 
characters should stimulate the production of better 
varieties bj establishing the Btandards with which thej 
maj be compared and bj pointing oul I he -non.: mul 
weak point- of the presenl \ arieties. 



METHOD OF PRO( EDI RE 



The following descriptions are based upon the results 
obtained from one crop summer, L931) grown at Si 

Paul. Minn.: tw ps wintei grown al Weslaco, 

during 1931 32 and 19 Bve crops (three 

spring and two fall) grown at Davis, Calif., during 

. . rops three Bpring and two fall grown 



: i Norfolk, \ a . during 1931 33; five crops (threespring 
and two fall) grown al Baton Rouge, La ; and eight 
crops (five Bpring and three fall) grown at Arlington 
Experiment Farm, Arlington, Va., and at the United 
States Horticultural Station, Beltsville, Md., during 
L931 



DESCRIPTIONS OF TYPES OF PRINCIPAL AMERICAN VARIETIES OF ORANGE-FLESHED CARROTS 



The manuscript and figures were critically reviewed 
by all collaborators and also by most of the major 
American carrot breeders and seed producers. Since 
the descriptions are based on actual stocks in existence 
at the time this work was done, the acceptance by this 
group most qualified to judge should be sufficient 
authority for establishing these as standards or type 
descriptions for the principal varieties. While it is true 
that all of the plants of any stock of any variety did not 
meet the standard herein described, the percentage that 
did attain the standard was sufficiently high in the 
better stocks to be commercially acceptable, as shown 
in the illustrations of random samples. The task of 
determining the intended type was, therefore, relatively 
easy. 

The list of varieties in this report, French Forcing, 
Scarlet Horn, Nantes, Red Core Chantenay, Danvers, 
Imperator, Long Orange, and Oxheart, includes those 
constituting between 85 and 95 percent of all the orange- 
fleshed carrots sown in the United States, according to 
reports submitted by seed growers and dealers when 
this work was started in 1931. 

Seed of the best available stocks of these varieties 
was requested from American and European seed 
growers through the vegetable research committee of 
the American Seed Trade Association. The same seed 
was used by all collaborators throughout the 3-year 
period (1931-33), and after the first year the observa- 
tions and measurements were made on the same strain 
of each variety according to a uniform system pre- 
viously agreed upon by the workers in the various 
locations. 

The choice of a name has been influenced by priority, 
descriptiveness, brevity, and popularity or use. In all 
cases brevity has dictated the omission of descriptive 
adjectives from the older varieties. Imperator is the 
name selected by the introducer. In cases where names 
for these varieties now used in seedsmen's catalogs differ 
from these standard names, it is suggested that the old 
name be enclosed in parentheses following the standard 
name, in order to acquaint the purchasers with the 
change in name. After a few years' use, listing of the 
old name may be discontinued. 

Synonyms were obtained from Morse (IS), 2 Ritchie 
(14), Tracy (15), unpublished records of the Bureau of 
Plant Industry for 1921, and from the catalogs and 
trial-ground records of American seedsmen. Some of 
these synonyms may be incorrect. Unless it was an 
integral part of the varietal name, the seedsman's name 
was omitted in the fist of synonyms. 

Every effort was made to provide optimum growth 

' Italic numbers in parentheses refer I" Literature Cited, p. 46. 



conditions at the different locations by the use of proper 
fertilization, irrigation, and cultural methods. Plants 
were spaced 3 inches apart in the rows with ample space 
between rows for uncrowded development of the foliage. 

It is felt that the range in environmental conditions 
was sufficiently wide, considering the different locations 
and seasons in which the crops were grown, to provide 
a lair sample of the weather conditions under which 
carrots are grown in the United States. 

Detailed notes, measurements, and color readings 
were made at prime marketable stage of maturity as a 
bunching carrot. The diameter varied according to 
variety as pointed out in the descriptions, but exterior 
color meeting the minimum market requirements was 
attained before the roots were considered to be prime 
marketable. A sample of 20 to 50 plants within the 
marketable range of diameter and color and typical of 
the variety was selected from which the detailed data 
were secured. 

Plant height and spread were measured when the 
plants were turgid, usually in the morning. The great- 
est distance between the tips of leaves on opposite sides 
of the plant was measured as the spread, and height 
was measured from the soil surface in the row between 
the plants to the highest point reached by the foliage. 

Leaf (petiole and blade) measurements, ratings, and 
color readings were made on one of the longest normally 
developed leaves from each selected plant. The leaves 
were cut off level with the top of the root. Petiole 
length was measured as the distance from the cut end 
to the point of juncture of the first pinna to the base; 
blade length was the distance from the juncture of the 
first pinna to the distal end of the central axis. Blade 
width was the distance between the ends of the first 
pair of pinnae (at the base) when the axis of each pinna 
was pulled back to form a right angle with the central 
axis. Petiole depth was the distance between the dorsal 
and ventral sides (top to bottom) of the petiole; diam- 
eter (width) was at right angles to depth ; both measure- 
ments were taken midway of the petiole length. Leaf 
number includes all leaves 2 inches or more in length. 

Color readings were made on the leaves that give the 
mass color effect in the field. These were usually the 
largest leaves or those that made up the greatest visible 
surface of the plant. The selected leaves were imme- 
diately taken to the laboratory and readings made from 
A Dictionary of Color (11) under light from a north 
window, before the leaves wilted. Root color readings 
were made on washed roots while the surface was still 
wet or damp. Specimens representing the average 
were selected for color readings, although notes were 
also made on the color of the extremes. 



I 



MISl I II wi ■ m - im BUI \iH'\ 361. i 8 hi r\l; i MIA i m \i,i:i< I u t BE 



IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS IN COMPARING CARROT VARIETIES OR STRAINS WITH TYPE 

MX KIPTIONS OR STANDARDS 

Since tlie greatest value of these descriptions will A pari of each row or rows should be pulled for com- 
probablj be as a standard by which to judge or compare parison as booh as the roots reach prime marketable 
new or commercial varieties or strains of carrot, greal stage of maturity for bunching purposes, and t lie re- 
care should I"- taken to provide proper conditions for mainder of the plants should be allowed to remain for 

valid comparisons. Cognizance should be taken of the i ther month or until they reach their maximum or 

variations to be expected, as pointed out in the section mature Bize. At least 25 normally developed plants 

on Influence <>!' Environment on Plant and Varietal should be available for each comparison and, wherever 

( Iharacteristics. Two or more strains of several stand- possible, measurements and color readings should be the 

ai.l varieties should be included in the test plots to basis of comparison. Counts of the number of mis- 

serve as a measure of the variation produced by the shapen or off type plants (not typical of the variety in 

part in ilar set ol growth conditions encountered. which they occur) and a brief description of the type of 

All -trains to be compared should be planted on the the offtj pe or unusual plants should also be included in 

Bame day and given identical cultural practices most the report or characterization of the -train or variety 

likely to lead to the production of a good commercial being tested. 

crop. The plot or field selected should be as uniform in Color comparisons should be made with dean roots <>r 

soil type and fertility as possible, and sufficient fer- foliage, preferably under cover and with light from a 

iiln\ should be provided for normal growth. north window. Rool sections Bhould be kepi moist 

Two or three rows, each 20 to 30 feel long, located in when comparing them with the color plate in this pub- 
various sections of the plol are likehj to give more reli- lication or with A 1 )ictionary of Color {11). The desig- 
able comparisons than a single longer row. Where a nations of color values used in this publication refer to 
critical comparison of yield is desired, plots of sufficient A I dictionary of Color and care should be used to follow 
and number should be so arranged that the results the direction- given therein in matching specimens with 
may he analyzed statistically. the color plates. 

The roWS -ho i dd he far r I'.'li apart I hat the lea\ e- ( )h\ LOUSTj , all eh a la el eri-l lc- of I he plant -hollld he 

do not overlap in the space between rows. Thinning to carefully studied and considered before attempting 

3 ol I inches apart in the row should be done while the identification or characterization. Carrol varieties 

plant- are -i ill ~ mall. usually differ in more than one character. 

INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT ON PLANT AND VARIETAL CHARACTERISTICS 



Owing to fluctuations in the different components 
comprising the environment, it is extremely difficult, if 
not impossible, to accurately determine the value or 
influence of any given factor of the environment in ex- 
periments conducted under held conditions. For thai 
ollowing discussion is based largely upon the 
results of experiments conducted under controlled 
conditions by other workers where the effect of :i given 

factor could be carefully studied. <>nl\ a brief -Uln- 

in.i in i- given, as reader- interested in the detail- may 
consult i he original articles cited. 

i\i I I i \< i. 01 ENVIRONMENT ON GERMINATION 

\.. varietal differences in germination were noted 
during the course of these trials, but environmental fac- 
tors BUCh as Soil type; amount, character, ami date of 
rainfall '-ml moisture); and temperature are of im- 
portance iii detennining the rate ami final percenta 
germination. Soil type in itself is probably m>i bo im- 
portant, but when planting i- followed bj beayj or 
dashing rainfall and dr\ ing winds just prior to seedling 

B hard crust i- formed on the BOlls of the 

or <lay types, which greatly impedes and sometimes 
the emi ol the small tender Beedlings. 



Sandy or loamy soils in good tilth are preferred. Ko- 
tow -id !.'/ found that with ample moisture in line -ami 
at constant temperatures the promptness of germina- 
tion was increased as the temperatures were increased 
from 16.4 F. to 51.8 . to nil. to 77.0 . and to 86.0 . 
Carrot -eed did nol germinate at 39.2 . and the tem- 
perature at which it did germinate seei I to have no 

effect on the final percentage of germination. 

Alternating temperatures (low at nighl and high dur- 
ing the day, or vice v ersa I gave no better results than 
favorable constant temperatures s . tO Daily or fre- 
quent watering delays germination, according to 
Bailej 

[NFLUENCE <»l BNYIRONMEN1 <»N FOLIAGE COLOB 

Color as well as size of carrot foliage is influenced by 
the conditions under which the plants are grown. < 'a ro- 
ll is and Brown 5) reported that a deficiency of nitrogen 
or magnesium results in a yellow ing of ' he lea\ es. An 
excess of nitrogen, especially during drj weather, pro- 
duces a \er\ dark green color, and it has also been ob- 

ed thai temperatures near 32 F orabove85 tend 
to darken the foliage color if sufficient nitrogen i- 

ent. 






DESCRIPTIONS OF TYPES OF PRINCIPAL AMERICAN VARIETIES OF ORANGE-FLESHED CARROTS 



5 



INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT ON FOLIAGE SIZE 

Conditions affecting the size or amount of the foliage 
are of primary interest to the carrot grower since the 
development of the root, a storage organ, depends on 
the materials elaborated in the foliage. Garner and 
Allard (7) showed that the length of the leaf is greatly 
reduced by limiting the plant to 7 hours of daylight 
compared with approximately 14 hours, and Barnes 
(2) found that increasing the daily lighted period from 
9 to 10.5 and 14 hours resulted in successive increased 
length of leaf but no significant increase in weight. 

The addition of any nutritional element that might 
become sufficiently deficient during the season to limit 
total growth would be expected to increase foliage 
growth. Nitrogen is most commonly deficient and the 
addition of nitrogenous fertilizers on most soils usually 
results in increased top or foliage growth. Soils more 
acid than pH 5.5 generally cause reduced size of the 
foliage as compared with less acid soils. Bremer (4) in 
Norway states that the amount of water in the sod is 
more closely associated with the weight of foliage pro- 
duced than is temperature, whereas temperature was 
more effective in increasing the length of the leaves 
than was soil moisture. 

Temperature is a very important factor in the pro- 
duction of carrot leaves. Germination will not take 
place at 39.2° F. and Bremer (4) states that foliage 
growth below 50° is very slow. The length and weight 
of leaves increase with increase in temperature up to 
82.4° for the Nantes variety, but is less at 75.8° than at 
66.1° for the Red Core Chantenay variety, provided 
optimum moisture and fertdity are avadable. An aver- 
age temperature of 65° resulted in much larger foliage 
than a temperature of 65° during the day and 45° dur- 
ing the night. If the temperature drops to 50° or 
below for 60 days or longer after root enlargement has 
started, the plants will produce seedstalks when higher 
temperatures prevad instead of completing root de- 
velopment. 

Foliage growth of carrots at temperatures beyond 
this range have not been studied critically, but it is 
doubtful if much growth takes place when the air tem- 
peratures are maintained in the neighborhood of 100° F. 
for any extended length of time. 

INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT ON ROOT WEIGHT 

The size or weight of the carrot root is dependent 
upon the abdity of the foliage to elaborate storage ma- 
terials in excess of the amount required for mainte- 
nance. Any factor affecting leaf size or efficiency 
might be expected to have some effect on root weight, 
although the factors affecting leaf size do not always 
have a corresponding effect on root size. Thus, Bre- 
mer's work with the Nantes variety showed that while 
the leaf length and weight increased as the temperature 
increased to 82.4° F., the weight of the root did not 



increase at temperatures above 68°. Larger roots of 
the Red Core Chantenay variety were produced at an 
average temperature of 66.1° than at 75.8°. The 
optimum temperature for root growth in carrot is 
probably between 65° and 70°, which is lower than the 
optimum for foliage growth. 

Optimum nutritional conditions also seem to be some- 
what different for root growth than for foliage grow T th, 
although any deficiency or unfavorable growth condi- 
tion that greatly reduces the amount of leaves might be 
expected to reduce the amount of root. However, 
under specific conditions certain elements such as phos- 
phorus, potassium, magnesium, and copper have in- 
creased root yields without materially affecting the size 
of the tops. Changes hi the moisture content of a com- 
posted garden sod from 18 to 26 and 34 percent of satu- 
ration resulted in large increases in fresh root weight, 
but still larger increases in leaf weight (2). 

At optimum conditions of temperature and moisture 
increases in day length from 9 to 10.5 and 14 hours had 
no effect on root weight, but when carrots were grown 
at low temperatures and with low soil-moisture con- 
tent, increasing the length of day increased the root 
weight and top size (2). 

Differences in final weight of roots grown at different 
temperature levels imply a differential rate of growth 
throughout, or at some period during the growth cycle of 
the plant. Experiments in electricaUy heated hotbeds (4) 
show that roots of the Nantes variety reached the mini- 
mum marketable size (15 gm.) from 4 to 9 days earlier 
when grown at sod temperatures of 68° F. than at 
60.8,° and 14 to 22 days earlier at 68° than at 53.6°. 
Increasing the temperature above 68° resulted in no 
increase hi date of first marketable size. 

INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT ON PLANT SIZE 

Obviously, differences hi one or more factors of dis- 
tinct environments that result in a larger foliage or 
root size without an accompanying retardation in the 
other plant part result in an increased total size or 
weight of plant. Even though the average size of root 
of the Nantes and Red Core Chantenay varieties does 
not increase at the higher temperatures, the foliage does 
increase enough to produce larger plants at the higher 
temperatures (82.4° and 75.8° F.) than at lower tem- 
peratures {4). 

The space available for growth is also a factor in de- 
termining the optimum temperature for large plant 
size. With the Nantes variety, increasing the distance 
between plants made it possible for the largest plants 
to be produced at lower temperatures (4). 

INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT ON ROOT SHAPE 

In addition to hereditary factors that may cause 
branched or forked roots, there are a number of env iron- 
mental factors that have a marked influence on the 






Mi-c 1 I I \M "I - PI Bl t< ATION 361, I B. DEPARTMENT 01 AGRII I l.i 1 RE 



shape of carrol roots. The presence ol undecayed ma- 

or plant refuse in the Boil results in branchh 
divided roots, and Boils of heavy texture produce more 
misshapen roots than those of lighter or more open 
texture. Branched or forked roots maj also be caused 
bj an injury t<> the young taproot or i" anj impedi- 
ment to its downward growth. Any nutritional factor 
that affects the size <>r weight might also be expected 
in influence the shape, since the developmental historj 
of shape shows thai roots increase in diameter more 
rapidly than in length and that the increase in diameter 
progresses from the top of the root downward. 

In the case of Red ( 'ore Chantenay, low soil moisture 
and low soil phosphorus resulted in more pointed roots 
than where optimum amounts were supplied {£). Un- 
published experimental work conducted l>\ the Cali- 
fornia Agricull ural Experiment Station at I )a\ i-, ( lalif., 
during the spring and summer with a uniform line of 
Danvers carrot showed thai carrots from relativelj 
dry Boil (sparingly or infrequently irrigated) were -i<_--- 
nificantrj Longer than those grown on relativelj moist 
soil (heavilj or frequently irrigated). 

In the present Btudies ( !alifornia carrots were usually 
longer than those grown from the same Beed .-it Norfolk 
and Arlington, Va., probably because of the combined 
effect of lower 3oil temperatures and less rainfall or soil 
moisture. 

The root shape ol carrots is also affected to b remark- 
able degree by temperature. The typical Bhape of the 
Red Core Chantenay varietj (plate 2) is mosl readily 
produced when 1 1 • « - roots are grown al constanl tem- 
peratures of approximately 65° F. When grown al a 
mean temperature <>f approximately 55 I', the roote 
were longer and more slender, and when grown a1 
approximately 75 1 1 1 < • \ were shorter and Lessslendei 
Growing plants at a mean temperature of about 15 at 
nighl iinil aboul 65° during the day resulted in longer, 
more slender roots than when they were grown con- 
tinuously < irovi ili :ii 65 ' until rool enlargement 
had l>i"_ r nii and then continuously iit n mean tempera- 
ture of aboul \~>' resulted in i rbj Bhaped roots, the 

ii|)|).-r part being enlarged as usual, bu1 the lower pari 
tapering off rapidly to a Long, thickened taproot. Al- 
though Nantes is a Longer, more Blender, and nearly 
cylindrically shaped variety, temperature had essen- 
tially the same effects as on Chantenay. When grown at 
temperatures above 68 . manj ofthe roots were mis- 
shapen mill their surfaces were rougher than al Lower 
temperatures. The results of these type trials indicate 
that liiirli ;i- well :i- low temperatures maj prevent the 
normal rounding of the base of such varieties as French 
I'm. - ili-t Horn, Nantes, and Chantenay, result- 
n roots with tapered bases (pla I, 7. 8, 9, 10, and 12). 
in.it Burface is influenced greatly l>\ 
tal conditions High temperatures and 
ilar water Bupply result in deep horizontal depres- 
in the root Biu fa< ii' sui ta< e l> 



grown in Virginia ;in<l Louisiana in the spring and 
summer are nol as smooth as those grown in Calif* 

or Texas during the winter <ir as bi Mi ;i- :i fall crop 

in tlic Northern State-, as shown in plates 9, 10, 11, 
and 12. Excessive moisture following a period "f water 
shortage frequently results in white, corky outgrowth 
at the points of side-rool emergence. 

Marked differences in the shape of the top of the 
carrol rool were observed in the Bpring <>r summer ami 
Late-fall crops grown in Virginia and Maryland (pi. 8 
The spring or summer crops encountered much higher 
temperatures and usually lessabundanl rainfall than the 
tall crop, with the result that the shoulders of the fall 
crop were more nearly square <>r more Bharplj rounded 
than those of the Bpring or summer-matured crop. 
Narrovi crowns or sloping shoulders were quite common 
in Bummer-mal ured Xante-. 

This \ariet\ also failed during late spring or early 
summer to develop normally that portion of the r< >< >t 
which mighl projecl above the soil due to washing 
awa\ of soil. Under these conditions the root became 
definitely necked. The -ame tendency appears if the 
partially L'i"« n plant- are covered with '■'< or 1 inches of 

-nil. 

im l.i i:n< i; or knvironmknt on root COLOR 

With the development of rapid chemical methods 
for determining the amounl of carotene, the principal 
pigmenl in yellow or orange carrots, it has been pos- 
sible to accurately determine the effect of different 
grow th conditions on carrot root color . Total color 
as measured by the carotene content i-. in general, 
decreased by continuous temperatures above 70 V. and 
below tin". Roots grown al a mean temperature of 

55° had LeSS total color than t ho-e grown at 65° and the 

exterior color of the roots was much Lighter, owing to the 
reduction in the amount of pigmenl in the surface 
Layers. Growing the plant- al a mean temperature oi 
about 15 after the roots had -tatted to enlarge resulted 
in -till poorer total color a- a result of the greater amount 
of the bleached or whitened cells al the Burface of the 
root. Cool nights (45°) and warm days (65 I resulted 
ewer bleached cells, hence better color, than did 
continuous grow th al 15 . 

Increasing the soil moisture from a Low to a hi'_'h per- 
age lie reased the total amount of color, but in Boil 
ot moderate fertility an increase in the amount of the 
differenl plant-food element- failed to increase appre- 
ciably the color of the root-. However, a marked 
deficiency of plant-food material- resulted in -mailer 

size and reduced color. 

Miller et al. {12), w i u king ii i Louisiana, found that 
carrot- that matured during the Bpring were of better 

color than t Im-e that matured duriii'_ r the fall and win- 

1. 1 (arrot- grown on sandj Boils or boAs high in 

matter wen- also <>f better color than those 

grown on Bill loam soil. The poor color of carrots 






7 



DESCKIPTIOXS OF TYPES OF PRINCIPAL AMERICAN VARIETIES OF ORANGE-FLESHED CARROTS 



grown in the water furrow as contrasted with the good 
color of carrots grown on the adjacent beds 10 inches 
high is thought to be due to the excess moisture in the 
water-furrow locations. All varieties reacted in the 
same way in the experiments, but there were always a 
few roots of superior color in each variety. Varying 
amounts of a 4-12-4 fertilizer had no material influence 
on color, nor did the addition of a mixture composed 
of boric acid, manganese sulfate, copper sulfate, 



barium chloride, potassium iodide, and zinc sulfate, 
nor 800 pounds per acre of fertilizers varying widely 
in percentages of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and 
potassium. 

Increasing the length of day from 9 to 14 hours did 
not affect the color of carrot roots, but reducing the 
daylight period to 7 hours resulted in much smaller 
size and lighter color than with 14 hours of light 
daily (*, 7). 



DEVELOPMENTAL HISTORY OF SHAPE AND COLOR OF CARROT ROOTS 



In spite of the rather wide range in general shape of 
carrot varieties and of smaller differences in range of 
visible color discussed in the following sections, there 
are rather consistent changes in shape and color with 
increased age and size. The carrot root, as it increases 
in age and size, changes in color from a yellowish white 
when very young to whitish yellow, light yellow, dark 
yellow, orange, or purple, according to the variety. 
These changes in color are due to the accumulation of 
carotene, which appears in varying intensities of yellow 
until crystals form, which produce the orange or orange- 
red color. 

In fairly uniform strains the larger roots usually have 
a higher concentration of carotene than the smaller 
roots of the same age, while in mixed stocks the larger 
roots are liable to be lighter colored, especially if the 
seed was grown near larger lighter-colored varieties with 
which the female parent could cross. In uniform 
strains the smaller old roots usually have more carotene 
than younger roots which are larger. 

Carotene is laid down first in the oldest cells of the 
cortex or phloem and then in the oldest cells of the 
core or xylem (fig. 1 and pi. 1). Since a carrot root 
grows from the cambium (junction of the core and 
cortex), the oldest cells are those immediately adjacent 
to the epidermis and in the center of the core. As the 
root grows older, more carotene is deposited in these 
oldest cells as well as in the cells nearer the cambium 
thereby establishing color gradients, which radiate 
from the center of the root outward and from the epi- 
dermis inward, leaving a light-colored ring at the 
cambium. In old or slow growing carrots this region 
may become fairly well colored. The vertical develop- 
ment of color is from the top of the root to the tip, for 
the same reason (6). 

The rate of increase in color depends to some extent 
on moisture and temperature but usually increases 
most rapidly during the early part of the plant's 
growth. It is not known how long the increase in 
carotene will continue under optimum conditions, but 
records show that it increased up to 142 days of age hi 
the Red Core Chantenay variety when grown during 
the summer in the garden at Ithaca, N. Y. (#). 



Varieties and individuals within a variety differ in 
the rate of carotene formation. Color formation 
reaches its visible maxim tun in a smaller number of 
days in the earlier maturing varieties than it does in 
the la ter varieties. From the market standpoint a vari- 
ety is said to be mature when it attains the desired size 
and its typical shape and color, with the color practi- 
cally uniform from top to bottom. Uniformity and 



P£T!OLE 



NECK 
COLLAR 



CROWN OR SHOULDER 



CORTEX OR PHLOEM 



CORE OR XYLEW 



TIP OR 6ASE 






Figure i. — Cross section of a carrot illustrating the terms used 
in the text for the various parts. 

degree of color are the most important factors in mar- 
ket standards, with size and shape usually required to 
be typical of the variety. Chemical analyses (3) indi- 
cate a varietal difference in carotene content at 2:> 
weeks of age, but no data are available to show whether 
at ages greater than this the same relative content 
would he maintained. 

Measurements on carrot roots showed increase in 
length and diameter (width) of Red Core Chantenay 
up to 112 days of age, at which tune the experiment 




8 Mix BLLANE01 S PUBLIl ITION 361, 1 - DEPARTMENT 01 AGRICULTURE 

- conclude* It was found that this variety in- under favorable conditions until ii is characteristically 

ter in diameter than in length after three- rounded or stump-rooted (pis. 2 and 3 . In Scarlet Horn 

fourths <>f ;in inch in diameter had been attained, bo and Red Core Chantenaj and to some extenl in Dan- 

ihat ;i- the roots became older thej became relatively vers the same rounding off :ii the tip <>f the enlarged 

tliiii , i 01 broader. Observations indicate that the root takes place, but the increase in diameter near the 

other \ arieties described in this publication develop in tip or base is qoI as rapid as near the crown and results 

the same manner. in ;i slightly tapering i",,i (pis. I. 10, LI, 13, and 14). 

The increase in diameter is most rapid al the top or In the Nantes ^ arietj the mature roots become - 1 1 : i i _r 1 1 1 - 

crown of the root and, as the plant becomes older, the sided, resulting in n cylindrical Btump-rooted shape 

lower portions of the root increase in diameter in vari- under the proper conditions (pis. 2, 5, and 6 When 

eties where tlii- change is characteristic, [n French young, ;ill these varieties bave roots with a tapered or 

Forcing the lower half of the rool gradually fills out pointed base. 

DISTINGUISHING VARIETAL CHARACTERISTICS 

The principal characteristics of the varieties of carrots described in tlii^ publication are given in table I . 
Table 1. Use and distinguishing characteristics of the principal varieties of orange-fit hed carrots 



Chief use 



Si l~.m 



amber 









r.«.l li-nfrth 



Born 

Red < 'ore < 'hantcnaj 
i > in \ . n 
itor 



Forclrj rdeu 

do 
Home i irden 

ii. I manufai • 
Boncbing f'>r market 

rden 

Stock feed 



\ on ■ srlj 

: 






do 



Late 
Mldseeaon 



do 

do 
Medium 



Small 

do 

i i 



do 



Small 

ill 
Medium to lance 

.ii 
Milium 



IX-IJ 

■• 

I 
: V. 






KiKit shape 






■ 



Base 



' 



skin color 
ground 



skin color 
1. 1..« ground 



- 



Frenrti I 

Horn 

i in i - 1 

i 



ale to round 

Medium conic to nearlj 

cylindric d. 
Slightly tapered to cyllndri- 

Medlum conic t" trui 

rnlc i" slightly irun- 

-T 

Very long conic 

Mod iuiTi conic to heart- 

.;- d. 



Round 

Square to round 
Round to sloping 

Sqn in to round 

Itnuml. 



9quare to slightly 

tapen 
Square to round 



Short tapered to 
round. 

Ic 

<i.. 
Medium tapered t" 
unded. 
Shorl milium ta- 

Long til- red 

Shorl taper 
round. 



i i i 

Small 

do 



Mi'ilium lo lance 



do 



Red 






do 



do. 



Very largi 



..do. 
..do 



Medlui 



do 
do 



do 
do 
Medium orange. 



Y.ll.'-i 
n 

Yellow Isn to deep 
Vellowish io deep 



Miscellaneous Publication 361, U. S. Department of Agriculture 



Plate I 








L.C.C.KRIEGE.R, PINX. 



Color of prime marketable root (A) and foliage (B) of the Imperator variety of carrot. Cross sections oj roots 
(C to E) show stages in the development of interior color from poor (E) to fan (D) to good (Ci Color 
designations (11) as follows: Local color on A, root 10 F 10. petiole base 21 L 5, and lighter; B. foliage 23 

xylem 9 K S; E, phloem Q I 7, xylem 9 K 5 



L 6; C, phloem 10 C 10, xylem 10 I 9; D, phloem K 10. 



Miscellaneous Publication 361, U. S. Department of Agriculture 



Plate 2 



TYPICAL CARROT ROOTS 



<$Mfe 



I 





FRENCH FORCING SCARLET HORN RED CORE CHANTENAY OXHEART 




NANTES DANVERS IMPERATOR LONG ORANGE 

An approximation of the ideal type, showing relative size and shape of mature roots, 



1!) 



MISCELLANE01 - PI BLN \n<>\ ■■■ I - DEPAKTMEN1 O] U3RII i LT1 in. 

FREN< il FORCING 













BRIEF 


( II \H\( TERIZATION 












L 


it t 1<- 


used 


excepl in 


the home gardi 


■ii and for forcing in h 


itlx'ds or coldf 


■ames. 


Its 


small 


fo 




and 


ear 


y maturil y are it- chief i 


i ages for forcing 


use. 










\ 


ery < 


arly 


maturing 


w ith sparse, small foliage and small, 


round or shoii 


to])— 1 


aped 


root- 


of 


me< 


limn 


orange color. 


i !racks easily 


after reaching 1 inch in diameter. 









IDAP1 Mill. II \ \M> I SE 

The French Forcing carrol isot very Little importance 
in the United States al present, n< year-around ship- 
ments of carrots from California <>r Texas have practi- 
cally eliminated the Frame >>r greenhouse culture of 
carrots, a purpose for which this variety was originated. 
tes has largely supplanted it for home and market- 
garden purposes. Cracks badly during rainy periods 
after it has attained I inch in diameter. 

SKVSON 

\,:. early maturing, reaching 1 inch (2.5 cm.) in 
diameter in 55 to 65 days from date <>f germination 
u hen grown as :i spring and summer crop bul requiring 

7.". to 85 days undei ler temperatures encountered 

by the late fall crops in the Northern States and the 
winter-grown crops in the Southern States :m<l Cali- 
fornia. Prime marketable size, I •. to l | inches (3.2 to 
I 5 cm.), is attained in 60 to 75 days as a spring and 
summer crop bul requires 85 to 100 days as a winter 
and earlj Bpring crop in Texas and California. 

PLANT 

Small, al prime marketable stage ol maturity 
typically aboul 2.3 ounces (65 gm.) bul ranges from 1.9 
2 ounces 55 to in average weight, de- 

pending on the amount of foliage present. Usually 
g to 10 inches (20 to 25 cm.) in average heighl and 10 
to I I inches 15 cm.) in average spread, or from 

l.d t.> [.6 times as wide as high. Under especially 
favorable conditions f<>r foliage growth, ii may attain 
an average heighl of 12 to 16 inches (30 to I 11 cm.) and 
a spread of 16 t" 19 inches 10 to 50 cm 
ii w i - 

Few in Dumber, usually average 7 to 10, verj seldom 

■ or more than !■">; constitute from 20 n> 30 

• hi of tin' total plan! weigh! at prime marketable 

e <.f maturity for the spring and summer crops and 

15 i" 20 percent for the fall and winter crops. 



Young growth typically lighl green, ranging from 
Cerro Green (22 L 5 to Peridot (22 I. 6) and An 
Green 22L7 . with older mature leaves darker green 
and approximating Forest Green (23 L 6 ; small, 
average Length 1 to I | inches (10 to 12 cm.) with a 
range of 3 to 7 inches (8 n> I s cm.), greatest width of 
blade approximately equal to Length <>i blade, which i- 
also approximately equal to length of petiole. Divi- 
sions medium to small in Bize. 

I' I MOLE 

Lijrhtcr irivm limn blade divisions, about Moss 
Green (2] L2) to Parrol Green (21 L 6); short, a^ erage 
Length 4 to I [inches (10 to 12 cm. . with a usual range 
in Length of 3 to 7 inches (8 to 18 cm. ; Blender, average 
width five sixty-fourths to eight sixty-fourths of an 
inch (2.0 i" 3.0 mm.) al the middle; average thickness 
aboul equal to width, about 10 times as l"ii'_ r as thick 
or wide. 

\l . h IMH (il.LAR 

Small oeck, usually twenty-two sixty-fourths to 
twenty-five sixty-fourths of an inch (9 to 10 nun.) in 
:>\ erage dm meter at smallest point but increases until at 
I ii >int of attachment of petiole bases to i'""t (collar) the 
diameter is thirty sixty-fourths to thirty-five Bixty- 
fourths of an inch - 12 to I t nun.). Collar medium to 

much sunken. 

hi H 1 1 

Grows almost completely underground; when first 
usable, I inch (2.5 cm in diameter, roots are Bhorfc- 
conical (top-shaped . but prime marketable roots LM 
to 1 | inches (3.2 to 1.5 cm.) in diameter should be 
round or Blightly oval; from L.O to I 2 times as loi 
thick al the crown, with Blightly rounded or rounded 
shoulders, rounded or Blightly tapering sides, and 
rounded base to a fine taproot and verj few, fibrous 
side roots from fairly numerous, medium-length and 
medium-depth horizontal depressions in the •< ** • » 
surface. Average weight 1.2 to 1.75 ounces (35 to 
i 



r . • I l"f 



Miscellaneous Publication 361, U. S. Department of Agriculture 



Plate 3 



FRENCH FORCING CARROT 




A 





C 



Acceptable range in type of French Forcing carrot: A, First marketable spring crop 1034 at Arlington, 
Va., X %; B, mature fall crop 1931 at Arlington, Va., X %; C, mature spring crop 1933 at Davis, Calif.. 
X %. T^ote the rounder base of mature Arlington -grown roots and greater length of Davis*grown roots. 



MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATION 361, 1 B DEPARTMENT 01 LGRICULTUBE 



>kin color "i Bhoulders . above ground 

• •in 14 L 1 to 14 L 7. according to exposure; 
>»kiii color below ground <»n prime marketable roots 
when 1 1 1 • > i — t about 10 II 10; cortex (phloem) aboul 
in. I v, and • lem) lighter and yellower, aboul 

'.i K 5 to 9L 7. 

I ore proportionately small, comprising aboul 15 to 
55 i" n 'iii of the n><>t diameter in spring and summer 
a and 35 i" 45 percenl in late fall and winter- 
grown crops. 

SI \n\1 Ms 

I rliesl French Forcing, Earhesl Red Born, Earliest 
Scarlel French Forcing, Earliest Short Horn, Earlj 
French Forcing, Early FrenchShort Born, Early Golden 
Ball, Early Scarlet French Born, Early Scarlet Short 



Born, Earlj Short Scarlet, Early Very Short Horn 
- irlet, Extra Earlj Scarlet, French Early Forci 
French Forcing Born, French Born, French Red Forc- 
ing, Golden Ball, Golden Ball Forcing, Short Born, 
\'ct\ Early Scarlet, Very Earhj Scarlet Forcing, and 
Verj K.iiK Short I lorn Scarlet. 

BISTOBl 

Probablj a French develop al from the Early Born 

type and Erst introduced in this country in 1861 by 
Thorburn as Extra Early Forcing. Earliest French 
Forcing was listed by B. K. Bliss & Sons in i s 7n and 
the same description, but under the name Earliest 
Freni h Short Born, was used by the same company in 
1867. Round Yellow and Round White carrots were 
know ii in France as early as 1 750. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF TYPES OF PRINCIPAL AMERICAN VARIETIES OF ORANGE-FLESHED CARROTS 

SCARLET HORN 



13 



BRIEF CHARACTERIZATION 



Of very limited use, chiefly in home gardens where the soil is shallow or of compact 
nature. 

Early to reach usable size with sparse, small foliage and small, slightly tapering roots 
3 to 4 inches long with blunt end, and deep orange-colored flesh and core. 



ADAPTABILITY AND USE 

The Scarlet Horn carrot is of high quality and valu- 
able for use in the home garden where the soil is inclined 
to be shallow or hard. It is of limited use and im- 
portance in the United States, as it is too small and too 
short for commercial bunching purposes. Nantes is 
equally early, of better quality, and more productive 
in the better soils. 

SEASON 

Early maturing, reaching three-quarters of an inch 
(1.9 cm.) in diameter in 60 to 70 days from date of 
germination when grown as a spring and summer crop 
but reqiiiring 80 to 90 days under cooler temperatures 
encountered by late fall crops in the Northern States 
and the winter-grown crops in the Southern States and 
California. Prime marketable size, 1% to 1% inches (2.8 
to 4.5 cm.), attained in 70 to 80 days as a spring and 
summer crop but requiring 90 to 100 days as a winter 
and early spring crop in the Southern States and 
California. 

PLANT 

(Pis. 2 and 4) 

Small, at prime marketable stage of maturity average 
weight about 2.8 ounces (80 gm.), but ranges from 2.3 
to 3.5 ounces (65 to 100 gm.) in average weights, 
depending largely upon the amount of foliage present. 
Usually 8 to 10 inches (20 to 25 cm.) in average height 
and 10 to 14 inches (25 to 35 cm.) in average spread, 
or from 1 .0 to 1 .6 times as wide as high. Under extremes 
of environment the average height has been as small as 
3% inches (9.45 cm.) and as large as 13% inches (34 cm.) 
with the average spread from 5% inches (13.4 cm.) to 
19% inches (50 cm.). 

LEAVES 

Few in number, usually average 7 to 9, very seldom 
less than 5 or more than 13; constitute from 20 to 30 
percent of total plant weight of spring and summer crop 
but only 15 to 20 percent of late fall or winter-grown 
crop. 

BLADE 

Young growth typically light green, ranging from 
Cerro Green (22 L 5) to Peridot (22 L 6), and Art 
Green (22 L 7) with older mature leaves darker green 



and approximately Forest Green (23 L 6). Small, 
average length of 4% to 5% inches (12 to 14 cm.) with 
a range of 3% to 8 inches (9 to 20 cm.); greatest width 
of blade approximately equal to length, which is usually 
equal to or slightly longer than the petiole. Divisions 
small to medium in size. 



Lighter green than blade division, about Moss 
Green (21 L 2) to Parrot Green (21 L 6); short, average 
length of 4 to 4% inches (10 to 12 cm.) but ranging 
from 3% to 7 inches (9 to 18 cm.); slender, average 
width three thirty-seconds to four thirty-seconds of an 
inch (2.4 to 3.1 mm.) at midlength, average thickness 
about equal to width ; 40 to 60 times as long as wide or 
thick, ratio depending mainly upon the length. 

NECK AND COLLAR 

Small, neck usually eleven thirty-seconds to fourteen 
thirty-seconds of an inch (9 to 11 mm.) in average 
diameter at smallest point but increases until at point 
of attachment of petiole bases to root (collar) the 
average diameter is fourteen thirty-seconds to sixteen 
thirty-seconds of an inch (11 to 13 mm.). Collar 
slightly to medium sunken. 

ROOT 

Grows almost completely underground. When first 
usable, three-fourths of an inch (1.9 cm.) in diameter, 
the roots are generally long conical in shape; but prime 
marketable roots, 1% to 1% mches (2.8 to 4.5 cm.) hi 
diameter, should taper only slightly from square to 
slightly sloping shoulders to a rounded or blunt base 
with a fine taproot and very few fibrous side roots from 
a moderate number of medium length, fairly shallow, 
horizontal depressions in the root surface. Mid- 
length diameter from 85 to 95 percent of the crown 
diameter; average length 3 to 4 niches (S to 10 cm.); 
from 2.0 to 2.5 times as long as thick at the crown; 
average weight 1.7 to 2.8 ounces (50 to 80 gm.). 

Skin color when shoulders appear above ground 
ranges from 14 L 1 to 14 L 7. according to exposure; 
skin color below ground on prime marketable roots 
when moist about 10 F 10; cortex (phloem), about 
10 F 11, and core (xylem) slightly lighter orange. 
about 10 1 9. 



11 MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATION 36 I - DEPARTMENT 01 AGRICULTURE 

e small, comprising :il»<>ut •!."> to 55 percenl of the fflSTOBl 

crown diameter of the root when grown as a spring and , .. , . , , , 

summer crop and only 35 to 15 percent when growi X " x ° ld type ta^g its name froni the Netherlands 

a late tall or winter crop. tow P ," ' "" Ml '" "'" ""'- 1 ' 1 "" 1 ' "' which ir was 

probabrj developed. Horensche wortelen (carrots of 

SYNONYMS Hoorn) were common on the Amsterdam markel in 

Early Dutch Horn, Early Scarlet, Early Scarlel 1610. The earhesl English seedsmen li-i Earlj Horn 

Dutch II" Earlj Shorl Horn, Early Short Scarlet, and Long Orange, and both were probably the firsl 

Dutch Horn Blunt, and Short Horn. varieties of carrol imported into the United States. 



Miscellaneous Publication 361, U. S. Department of Agriculture 



Plate 4 



SCARLET HORN CARROT 




A 




B 



Acceptable range in type of Scarlet Horn carrot (X %) grown at Arlington, Va.: A, As spring crop 1934, 
prime marketable; B, fall 1931, mature. Note the more cylindrical shape and rounder bases of the more 

mature roots in B. 



16 



\li-c Ml. wi. "i - ii BLICATION 361, i - DEPARTMENT] "i \<.i:i< I i.m 1:1. 

\ INTES 



KKI1I ( H \K\( I ERIZA1 l<>\ 



Highly recommended for home- ;ni<l market-garden use because of it- excellenl quality 
aiid earlines 

Early maturing with sparse, small, and very brittle foliage. Roots I to 6 inches long, 
uearly cylindrical, with blunt cud having deep-orange flesh and core of fine texture and flavor. 



UDAPT Mill. I I \ AM) I si: 

Nantes i- recommended for borne- and market- 
garden use because ><f it- unexcelled quality and curly 
maturity. 'I'll" besl quality and yields are obtained 
only on the lighter textured soils, such as fine sand, 
siii<h Loams, and muck. The top- and roots are too 
brittle for commercial bunching and shipment, and ii is 
not :i •_"><.. I storage carrol because of it- thin -kin and 
fine texture. 

SKVSON 

Early maturing, reaching three-fourths of an inch 
9 cm.) in diameter in tin to 7n days from date of 
germination when grown ;i- spring and summer crop 
hut, rc<|iiiriii'_' mi to no day- under cooler temperatures 
encountered by late fall crops in the Northern States 
and winter-grown crops in the Southern States and 
California. Prime marketable >i/.c I to I \- inches 
. : cm.), attained in 70 to 80 days as a spring 
and summer crop bul requiring 90 to LOO days as a 
winter and early spring crop in the Southern States and 
( lalifornia. 

PLANT 

P 2, 5, 6, 7, and 8 

Small; al prime marketable stage of maturity, aver- 

-. ii_')ii about 3.2 ounces 90 gm.) bul ranges from 

to 3.7 ounces 75 to 105 gm.), depending Largely <>n 

amount of foliage present. Usually 8 to lit inches (20 

to 25 ■ height and 10 to i I inches (25 to 

in. i in average spread or from i.u to 1.6 times as 

wide M- tall. Under extremes of environment the 

average foliage height may be as small as 1 inches 

do cm.) .-iinl as large as 12 inches (30 cm.) with the 

plant \\ iilth hi 9 ii" bes 2 1 cm.) to 18 

iinl,. ii.). 

I.KW I - 

I • w iii number, usually average 7 to 9, verj seldom 

less than 5 or more than 13; constitute from 15 to 25 

percent of total plant weight of spring and summer 

p but only \2 to 20 per. cm of Late fall or winter- 

N crop. 

in IDE 

• will typically Light green, ranging from 

I. 5 to Peridot 22 L6) and Art I rreen 

ti older mature Leaves darker green and 



approximating Forest Green 23 L 6 Small, average 
Length of 4 \ to 5 inches (12 to L4 cm.) with a range in 
average Lengths of 4'.- to 5 | inches ill to 15 cm.); 
greatest width of blade approximately equal to Length, 
which i- usually equal or slightrj Longer than the 
petiole. I>i\i-i"n- -mall to medium in size. 



Lighter green than blade divisions, about Moss 
Green (21 I. 2) to Parrol Green (21 L 6); short, a^ erage 
Length of A to I | inches (10 to l- cm.) but ranges in 
average Lengths from '■>' to •">', inches (9 to L3 cm. : 
-lender, average width -i\ sixty-fourths to eight sixty- 
fourths of an inch CM to :-S.l) mm.) at inidlcn.'t h ; a\ er- 
age thickness about equal to width; :;."> to 45 times as 
Long as wide, depending mainly on the Length. 

M i K \M> ( OI.I.AR 

Very small, neck usually eighteen sixty-fourths to 
twenty-five sixty-fourths of an inch (7 to L0 mm.) in 
average diameter at smallest point but increases until 
at point of attai hineni of petiole bases to root (collar 
the average diameter i- twenty-two sixty-fourths to 
thirty sixty-fourths of an inch (9 to L2 mm.). Collar 
not sunken. 

HOOT 

Grows almost completely underground with a few 
roots protruding three-eighths to five-eighths of an 
inch (l to i.7> cm.) above the soil Level; when first 

usable, three-f th- of an inch (1.9 cm.) in diameter. 

the roots are almost cylindrical in shape for the upper 
one-hali to two-thirds of their length, bul taper gradu- 
ally for the Lower one-half to one-third to a more or 
Less pointed base. Prime marketable rout-, r. to i ( 
inches (2.8 to 1.5 cm I, should be cylindrical throughout 
their Length or only slightly tapered i . . a rounded 
(blunt) or short-tapered base with very fine taproot 
and very few fibrous side roots from a moderate num- 
ber of i hum-length, fairlj shallow, horizontal de- 
pressions in the rout surface. Shoulder- round to 
long sloping. Midlength diameter from 90 to LOO 
per. ei it of the crown diameter; a\ erage Length i , to 5 i 
inches (12 to L5 cm I with Louisiana crops shorter and 
( lalifornia Longer, from 3.5 to 6.2 times as Long as thick 
at the crown; average weighl 2.1 to 3.2 ounce- (60 to 
'in gm i, depending mainly on Length. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF TYPES OF PRINCIPAL AMERICAN VARIETIES OF ORANGE-FLESHED CARROTS 



17 



Skin color when shoulders appear above ground 
ranges from light to dark red, approximately Tapestry 
Red (7 J 5) for the dark red ; skin color below ground 
on prime marketable roots when moist about 10 F 10; 
cortex (phloem) about 10 C 10; and core (xylem) only 
slightly yellower, about 10 I 9. 

Core small, comprising about 45 to 55 percent of the 
crown diameter of the root when grown as a spring 
and summer crop and only 35 to 45 percent when 
grown as a late fall or winter crop. 

SYNONYMS 

Coreless, Early Half Long Nantes, Early Nantes, 
Half Long Coreless Nantes, Half Long Nantes, Half 



Long Scarlet, Half Long Scarlet Nantes Stump Rooted, 
Half Long Scarlet Stump Rooted, Half Long Stump 
Rooted Nantes, Improved Nantes, Nantes Half Long, 
Nantes Half Long Scarlet, Nantes Half Long Stump 
Rooted, Nantes Stump Rooted, and Stump Rooted. 

HISTORY 

Early Half Long Scarlet Nantes first appeared in the 
B. K. Bliss & Sons catalog for 1870. Other and later 
catalogs indicate that it was a more refined strain of 
the older Half Long Stump Rooted variety (itself a 
strain of Early Horn) developed in the vicinity of 
Nantes, France. 



159234°— 40 3 



1 ■ Lication 361, 1 S. Department of Agriculture 



Plate 5 



NANTES CARROT 





\f"-- 



li 



\ .i type of .Vinin carrot grown w^ (A) sprin \ crop i •>.'-■), at Arlington, Va. t first marketable 
(B) as spring crop 1932, at Davis,Calij , prinu marketable stage of maturity. 



Miscellaneous Publication 361, U. S. Department of Agriculture 



Plate 6 



NANTES CARROT 





B 



Acceptable range in type of mature J^antes carrot, X %: A, Grown at Arlington, Va., spring 1932; B, at >[or- 
fol\, Va., fall 1931. Compare with plate 5, A, and note more cylindrical shape and more rounded tips on 
mature roots. 



, Publication 361, 1 !> ■ irtment of Agriculture 



Plate 7 



NANTES CARROT 



7 WT \U Wi/ w x i7\ 






' kflj 1 


^ 


Ilk' Ik I 




■/ ■■'. of good strain of ^antes carrot, grown in spring .'". ; 2 at Arlington, Va., showing effect of 
.ul shape, Bui month older than A. J^atethe rounding out of the tips on the older 

face due f<> High (• »nj* ratun s and s< cond growth. 



MS V^ A. 1 ^^ .■. k. # ■». ^ / 



Miscellaneous Publication 361, U. S. Department of Agriculture 

NANTES CARROT 



Plate 8 





Random sample of the same strain of T^antes carrot grown at Beltsville, Md., in 1935, showing difference in 
shape when grown (A) during a dry, hot spring and summer, and (B) during a cool, moist jail season, \ 
%. s . Tipte mar\ed difference in shape of crown and tip of root. Disease in late spring tilled most oj the 

leaves and hrevented normal maturity 






MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATION 361, 1 B DEPARTMENT 01 AGRICULTURE 

KKI> CORE CHANTENA1 



BRE l i II \K M l ERIZA1 ion 






The must widely used general-purpose variety. Especially valuable for 


storage 


and 


canning factory purposes. 






Midseason in maturity with a large strong top or foliage. Roots [% to 5) 


. inches 


long 


and l to 2 inches thick when used for bunching, tapering to a blunl end and with 


deep-or 


!!'_' 


flesh and core; of good quality. 







ADAPTABILITY AND USE 

The Red Core Chantenay is the mosl valuable gen- 
eral-purpose variety, It is recommended for borne 
gardens where only a single variety is to I"- grown, as 
it grows welJ in most Boil types. Still used for bunch- 
ing purposes in many market-gardening sections, al- 
though the longer varieties arc supplanting it in carlot- 
shipping sections. Large acreages are grown for use 
in soups, for canning, and for manufacturing, because 
of the large yields of uniformly and deeply colored 
thai are produced under favorable conditions. 

si:\son 

Midseason maturity, reaching three-fourths '•! an 
inch (1.9 cm.) in diameter in 65 to 7"> days from date 
of germination when grown as a spring and summer 
crop, but requiring 90 t<> 100 days under cooler tem- 
peral ures encountered by late fall crops in I be Nort hern 
States and tlic winter-grown crop in the Southern 
States and California. Prime marketable size for 
bunching, !'■, to _'•. inches 1.2 to 5.7 cm.) attained 

in 75 to s "- days as a spring and sun sr crop, bul 

requiring 90 to 120 days a~ a winter and earl} spring 
crop in the Southern Mate- and California. 

PLANT 

P 2, 9, in, l l, and 12 

Large, at prime marketable stage <>f maturity the 
average weighl i- approximately 6.2 ounces (175 gm.) 
bul may range from 1 9 '" s ounces (] in i" 225 gm.), 
depending on amount <»f foliage present and lengtb of 
root. Usually I 1 t" I s u i bi - (35 to 15 i m.) in height 
and 16 i<» r. ,! . inches 10 to 50 i m in average Bpread 
or from 1.0 i'> 1.6 times as wide as tall. Under ex- 
tremes "f environment average heights have been a~ 
- 1 1 1: 1 1 1 a- '.i inches (23 cm.) and a^ large as 19 ini bes 
cm.) with average Bpreads a^ small as L2 in< 
and a- large as 23 inches (60 cm.). 

ii w i B 

b< > average 10 t<> 13, \ erj seldom 
■ more than 15; constitute from 30 h 
plant weight >■! - 1 » r i 1 1 -_r and Bummer 
ent of late fall or w inter 

i ro] 



Y^oung growth typically light green, ranging from 
( lerro Green (22 L 5 to Peridot 22 I. 6 and Art 
Green 22 L 7) with older mature leaves darker green 
and approximately Forest Green 23 L 6 . Lai 
average length 8 to 10 inches (20 to 25 cm.) and a 
range in average lengths ol 6 | to I0)j inches (17 to 
26 cm ; greatest width oi blade slightly larger or equal 
tn length, which is usually 20 to 30 percent longer than 
the petiole. Divisions medium in size. 

PETIOLE 

Lighter green than blade divisions, about Moss Green 
i_'i L 2) to Parrot < rreen (21 L 6); medium to li 
average length of 6 '•. to 8 inches (16 to 20 cm.), but 
ranging from 1 t" 8 ( inches Ml i" 22 cm.); stout, 
average width of two-sixteenths to three-sixteenths oi 
.-in inch (3 t" ■") mm.) at midlength; average thickness 
almost equal to width; 40 to 15 times as long as wide 
or t hick. 

NBCB »Mi i OLLAB 

Medium to large, neck usually thirty-four sixty- 
fourths to fifty sixty-fourths of an inch (14 to 20 mm.) 
in average diameter at smallest point, bul increases 
until at point of attachment of petiole bases t" rool 
(collar) the average diameter is forty-five sixty- 
fourths to fiity-eighl sixty-fourths of an inch (IS to 
23 mm. , Collar slightlj to medium sunken. 

KOI I I 

Grows almost completely underground; when first 
usable, three-fourths of an inch (1.9 cm in diameter, 
the roots arc generally long-conical in shape, l>m as 
the toots mature the lower half ol the root Blls oul 
and eventually the base Bhould become roundel or 
stump-rooted. At prime marketable stage of maturity, 
i | t.i 2 inches 3.2 to 5.0 cm. I, the shoulders are square 
to rounded, sides taper gradually to a blunt-pointed 
or rounded base with a medium fine taproot and a 
moderate number of fine fibrous side roots from a 
moderate number of medium length, fairly Bhallow 
horizontal depressions in the rout surface. Midlength 

diameter from 80 to 90 percent of the crown diaiinti r. 

average length from i to 5 | inches (11 to 13 cm.) 
with Bpring crop at Norfolk and Louisiana slightly 



DESCRIPTIONS OF TYPES OF PRINCIPAL AMERICAN VARIETIES OF ORANGE-FLESHED CARROTS 23 

shorter and California crops slightly longer, from 2.2 summer crop, but only 50 to 60 percent when grown 

to 3.2 times as long as thick at the crown; average in late fall or winter, 
weight from 3.5 to 6.2 ounces (100 to 175 gm.), depend- 
ing mainly on length. 

Skin color when shoulders appear above ground Coreless Chantenay, Goldinhart, Rotheroz; Ruby 

ranges from 14 L 1 to 14 L 7, according to exposure; Core, 
skin color below ground on prime marketable roots 
when moist about 10 F 10 to 10 C 10; cortex (phloem) 

about 10 C 10; and core (xylem) slightly more yel- Red Core Chantenay was produced by continued 

low, 10 I 9. selection of "red" or orange-colored roots originally 

Core large, comprising about 60 to 75 percent of from the Chantenay variety. It was introduced to 

the crown diameter when grown as a spring and the seed trade in 1929 by C. C. Morse & Co. 



SYNONYMS 



HISTORY 



Miacellani u Publication 361 I s Department of Agriculture 



Plate 9 



Kin CORE CHANTENAY CARROT 





\ in type of Red < ( U ru m ■ rown at Arlington, Va. t as a spring crop (A) in 1934 

id(B)in 1933 at prime marketable stage of maturity, Compare with plate 10, A, 

■Kii diameter and thickness and roundness of tip with increased a 



Miscellaneous Publication 361, U. S. Department of Agriculture 



Plate 10 



RED CORE CHANTENAY CARROT 




Acceptable range in type of mature Red Core Chantenay carrot, X %, A, Grou n at Arlington, Va., spring 
crop, 1932; B, at Korfol\, Va., fall crop, 1931. Wote the failure of the 7siorfol\ fall croptoattain rounded 
tip. 



Publicati Department of Agriculture 



Plate 11 



RED CORE CHANTENAY CARROT 





■tabic range in type of lied Core Chantenay cat rot at prime marketable stage <»/ maturity grown at Davis, 
Calif., (A) in spring 1933; (H) in spring J ( r<2, showing difference in size and shape produced in different 



Miscellaneous Publication 361, U. S. Department of Agriculture 

RED CORE CHANTENAY CARROT 



Plate 12 




Random sample of good strain of Red Core Chantenay carrot grown in spring 1932 at Arlington, Va., show i)ig 
effect of age on size and shape, X %-s- Bis 1 month older than A and shows failure of many roots to develop 
rounded tips although there is a mar\ed increase in this respect with greater age. 



I 



MIS! I II ' m I 'i - ii i.l.M \ i l"N ■■' ; . i - DEPARTMENT] "I kGRII i LT\ i:l. 

DAN VERS 



1:1:11 l ( II \l( \< I ERIZA I ION 

The mosi extensively used variety for bunching purposes, bul is being supplanted by 
longer varieties in certain shipping sections. 

Midseason in maturity with large, strong foliage. Roots 5 to 6 inches long by 1 to 1 
inches thick when used for bunching, tapering to a short-tapered or slightly rounded end and 
with deep-orange flesh and slightly yellower core. 



\l)\l'l \KII.I I Y AM) I SE 

The Danvers carrol is primarily used for bunching 
in market-garden and shipping sections bul is also a 
d storage carrot and when overgrovi d is valuable for 
-tuck feed. In carlot-6hipping sections with light- 
textured soils longer unci better colored varieties are 
rapidly supplanting it for bunching. It isnol adapted 
bo heavj or shallow soils. The interior color is usually 
nut deep enough nor uniform enough for canning 
purpc 

M \so\ 

Midseason maturity, reaching three-fourths of an 
b ch (1.9 cm.) in diameter in 70 to 85 days Erom date of 
germination when gro^ i as a spring and summer crop, 
In 1 1 requiring 90 to LOO days under cooler tempera! urea 
encountered by late fall crops in the Northern States 
and the winter crop in the Southern States and Cali- 
fornia. Prime marketable size for bunching, r ; to 2 
inches (3.2 to 5.0 cm.), attained in 80 to 90 days as a 
spring and summer crop bul requiring 90 to 120 days 
as a winter and early spring crop in the Southern States 
and < lalifornia. 

Pl \NT 

P 2, 13, and I l 

Large, al prime marketable stage of maturity the 
average weighl is approximately 6 2 ounces (175 gm.), 
but may range from I 6 to 7 ounces (130 to 200 gm.), 
depending largely on amounl of foliage and length oi 
Usually 12 to 16 inches 30 to 10 cm.) in beighl 
and it to 18 inches (35 to 15 cm.) in average spread, 
or from 1.0 to 1.6 times as wide as tall. Under ex- 
tremes of environment, the average height bas been 

mall as 9 inches (24 cm.) and as large as I s 
inches (47 cm , with an average spread from 12 inches 
to 20 in< In 52 ■ ■ 

II Wis 

I. • iii Dumber, average 9 to 12, verj seldom 
than 8 or more than 15; constitute from 35 to 15 per- 
of the total plant weight of spring and Bummer 
crops and only 2 percenl of late fall or winter 

crop 



BLADE 

Young growth typically light green, ranging from 
Cerro Green (22 L 5) to Peridot 22 I. 6) and Art 
Green (22 L 7) with older mature leaves darker green 
and approximately Foresl Green (23 L I). Large, 

avrra-jv IriiL'lli of S t<> Hi inches i'Jii tO 25 Cm.) and B 

range in average lengths of 5 | to 10 inches (15 to 25 
cm.); greatest width of blade usually -mailer than or 
equal t<> blade length, which is 10 to 15 percenl longer 
than th«' petiole. Divisions medium in size. 

PEnoi i 

Lighter green than blade divisions, about Mo a 
Green (21 L 2) to Parrol Green (2] L 6); medium to 
long, average length of 5 \ to 8 inches (15 to 20 cm.), 
but ranges from l' : to 9 inches ( 1 1 to 23 cm.); stout, 
average width of two-sixteenths to three-sixteenths 
of an inch (3 to 5 mm.) at midlength, average thick- 
ness almost equal to width; 35 to 50 times as long as 
w ide. 

nmk \si> COLLAH 

Medium to large, neck usually thirty-four sixty- 
fourths to forty-five sixty-fourths of an inch (14 to 18 
mm.) in average diameter at smallest point, but in- 
. reases until al point of attachment of petiole bases to 
root (collar) the average diameter is fortj sixty-fourths 
to sixtj sixty-f ourths of an inch ( 16 to 24 mm.). Collar 
not, or only slightly, sunken. 

it 

Grows almosl completely underground. When first 
usable, three-fourths inch (1.9 cm.) in diameter, the 
roots are long-conical in shape with a long, tapering 
base, bul as the roots mature the lower half fills out 
ami eventually the base should become short-tapered 
or slightly rounded. Ai inime marketable Btage of 
maturity, I ', to 2 inches (3 2 to 5.0 cm . the shoulders 
are almost square to rounded, sides taper gradually 
to a short-tapered or slightly rounded base with a 

medium fine taproot and a i lerate number of medium 

length fairly shallow, horizontal depressions in the root 
surface Midlength diameter i- from 75 to s ", percenl 
of the crown diameter; average length from v. to .V, 



DESCRIPTIONS OF TYPES OF PRINCIPAL AMERICAN VARIETIES OF ORANGE-FLESHED CARROTS 



29 



inches (13 to 15 cm.) with spring crops at Norfolk and 
in Louisiana slightly shorter and in California and 
Texas slightly longer; from 2.9 to 4.3 times as long as 
thick at the crown; average weight from 3 to 4.7 
ounces (85 to 135 gm.), depending mainly on length. 

Skin color when shoulders appear above ground 
ranges from 14 L 1 to 14 L 7, according to exposure; 
skin color below ground on prune marketable roots 
when moist about 10 F 10; cortex (phloem) about 
10 F 11, and core (xylem) usually more yellow, 10 I 5, 
although some roots as orange as 10 I 9. 

Core medium to large, comprising from 55 to 65 per- 
cent of the crown diameter when grown as a spring and 
summer crop, and 45 to 55 percent when grown in late 
fall or winter. 



SYNONYMS 

Danvers Half Long, Danvers Half Long Improved, 
Danvers Half Long Orange, Danvers Half Long Scar- 
let, Danvers Improved, Danvers Intermediate, Exhi- 
bition Danvers, Half Long Danvers, Half Long Orange, 
Selected Half Long Danvers, Improved Danvers Half 
Long, Market Garden, Orange Danvers, Prize Danvers, 
Selected Danvers, and Stump Rooted Half Long. 

HISTORY 

First listed in the United States by Schlegel, Everett 
& Co. in 1871, and developed at an early date by carrot 
growers in the vicinity of Danvers, Mass., from which 
town it obtained its name. It was first known locally 
as the Danvers carrot. 



Publication 361 i S Department of Agriculture 



Plate 13 



DANVERS CARROT 





// 



' 1fuh W '■' '-l^ of mature Danvers carrot grown (A) at Arlington, Va„ spring crop 1932, and (H) 

at KorfolX, Va., fall crop 1931, 



Miscellaneous Publication 361, U. S. Department of Agriculture 

DANVERS CARROT 



Plate 14 







: 





JL 







B 

Acceptable range in type of prime marketable Danvers carrot grown at Davis, Calif.: A, In spring L933; 
B, in spring 1932, showing difference in size and shape produced in different seasons, \ '•• 






MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATION 361, 1 B DEPARTMENT Ol AGRICULTURE 

[MPERATOR 



BRIEF I M \K\( I ERIZA1 l<»\ 

Extensively used for bunching purposes in certain carlot-shipping sections of the United 
States. Adapted onrj to deep sandy or loamy soils. 

Midseason to late in maturity with large strong foliage. Roots 6 to 7 inches long by 
1 to l inches thick when used for bunching, tapering only slightly to a short-tapered end 
and with deep-orange flesh and slightly yellower core. 



\n\i-i m:ii i n \M> use 

Lmperator is o relatively new variety thai is exten- 
sively grow ii in certain sections of California and Texas 
forshipmenl as bunched carrots. It requires deep, well- 
drained, Bandy, or loamy soils and a long growing season 

of i lerate temperatures i<> produce the long, straight, 

slender, well-colored roots desired l>\ the discriminatii 
buj ii. 

SEASON 

Midseason to late in maturity, reaching three-fourths 
of an inch (1.9 cm.) in diameter in 75 to 85 days from 
date of germination when grown as a spring and summer 
. rop In n requiring 95 to I 10 days under cooler tempera- 
tures encountered l>\ late fall crops in the Northern 
States and by winter crops in the Southern States and 
California. Prime marketable size for bunching, I to 
inches in diameter (2.5 to 4.2 cm.) attained in 80 to 
90 <l;i\ - as a spring and summer crop, but requirin 
tn win days as o winter and early spring crop in the 
Southern States and ( !alifornia. 

PLANT 

P .1,2. 15, and 16 

Medium to large in size; al prime marketable stage 
of maturity the average weigh! is approximately 4.5 
ounces (125 gm.) bul may range from 2.6 to 6.5 ounces 
75 to 185 gm.), depending on amount of foliage and 
length of root. Usually 12 to 16 inches (30 to 10 cm.) 
In average beighl and 10 to I I inches (25 to 35 cm i in 
average spread, or from 1.0 to 1.3 times as tall as wide. 

ii IVES 

Medium in number, average 8 to 10, verj seldom l< 
than 7 or more than I I; constitute from 35 to 15 percent 
of the total plant weight of spring and Bummer crops, 
and 25 to I 11 pi ro nt of late fall or winter crop 



rowtb typically light green, ranging from 

Li to Peridot 22 I. 6 and An Green 

1 older mature leaves darker green and ap- 



proximately Forest Green (23 I. 6 Largi a erage 
length of ."i '■, to 10 inches (15 to 25 cm est v. idth 

of blade equal t 'slighthj greater than blade length, 

which is in tu 25 percent longer than the petiole. Divi- 
sions medium in size. 

I'l Mill I 

Lighter green than blade divisions, about Moss Green 
2] L 2) to Parrot Green (21 I. 6 1; me. limn !<• long, 
average length oi 5 | to 8 inches (15 to 20 cm I; stout, 
average width of two-sixteenths to three-sixteenths oi 
an inch (3 to 5 mm.) .-it midlength; average thickness 
equal to or slighthj larger than width; 35 to 50 times 
as long as \\ ide. 

NECK LND COLLAH 

Medium size; neck usually thirty-four Bixty-fourtha 
to forty-five sixty-fourths of an inch (14 to is nun.) in 
average diameter at smallest point with verj bttle if 
anj increase in diameter at point <if attachment of 
petinlr bases to root (collar). Collar oot sunken. 



(Jniws ri.iii|iliMcly underground; when first usable, 
I of .in inch (1.9 cm.) in diameter, the roots are long- 
conic in shape with a tapered base, but ;i< the roots 
mat nrc the lower half of the root fills out, carrying the 
thickness down toward the base. At prime marketable 
stage of maturity, I to I inches (2.5 to 1.2 cm.) in 
diameter, the shoulders are almost square n> ^li'_ r litly 
sloping, the sides taper gradually to a Bhort tapered 
base with a medium to fine taproot and ;i medium 
number of medium-length, fairly shallow horizontal 
depressions in the root Burface. Midlength diameter 
i- in. in 80 to 95 percent of the crown diameter; :i\ erage 
•Ii about 6 I inches (17 cm.), but shorter ;i" ;i 
Bpring crop at Norfolk and in Louisiana, and longer in 
( !alifornia ; from 4.2 to 5.4 times as long as thick at the 
crown; weighl from 2 5 ounces (65 !<• 100 gm 

depending mainly on lengl h. 

Skin color when Bhoulders appear above ground 
ranges from 14 L 1 to 14 L 7, according to exposure; 
>kin color below ground on prime marketable roots 
when moist, about 10 !•' 10; cortex (phloem) about 



DESCRIPTIONS OF TYPES OF PRINCIPAL AMERICAN VARIETIES OF ORANGE-FLESHED CARROTS 33 

10 F 11 and core (xylem) usually more yellow, about SYNONYM 

10 I 5, although some as orange as 10 I 9. ompoc. HISTORY 

Core, medium to large, comprising from 50 to 65 

percent of the crown diameter when grown as a spring The Imperator is the result of a cross between Nantes 

crop and 45 to 55 percent when grown in late fall or and Chantenay. It was introduced in 1928 by Associ- 

winter. a ted Seed Growers, Inc. 



rliicellaneoiu Publication J61, l S. Department •■( Agriculture 

IMPERATOR CARROT 



Plate 15 





Acceptable range in type oj plants oj Imperator carrot at first marketable stage of maturity: A, Spring crop 

oj 1934; '*. tprin ■ crop of 1933 at Arlington, Va., 



Miscellaneous Publication 361, U. S. Department of Agriculture 



Plate 16 



IMPERATOR CARROT 





B 



A, Randoyn sample from good strain of Imperator carrot at prime marketable stage of maturity, grown at 
Baton Rouge, La., spring of 1933, X %', B, acceptable range in type of Imperator carrot at prime marketable 
stage of maturity, grown at Davis, Calif., spring of 1933, '.-. (Compare with pi. 14.) 



S 






MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATION 361, 1 B DEPARTMENT 01 U5RICULTUBE 

LONG ORANGE 



Itltll I ( ll \lt \< l BRIZA1 H>N 

Adapted only to the deeper, lighter soils and of very limited use in the United States for 
bunching or for stock feed. 

Midseason to late in maturity with large, strong foliage. Roots for bunching] [to 2 
inches thick by 7 to in inches long, tapering to a long, slender end and « ith deep-orange flesh 

;ind yellower core. 



\lt\l>l Mill. I I \ \M) I SE 

Mainlj used for the production ol stock feed, but 
sionally grown in borne or markel gardens. Be- 
cause of the difficulty in harvesting its long roots, the 
varieties Oxhearl and Red Core Chantenaj are pre- 
ferred t<> Long Orange for the production of roots for 
stock feed on the heavier soil types. It is aol adapted 
in heavy, shallow, or poorly drained soils and requires 
;i long growing season for large production. 

SEASON 

Midseason to late maturity, reaching three-fourths 
nf nil inch i 9 cm. in diameter in 70 to 85 days from 
date of germination when grown as a spring and sum- 
mer crop, but requiring 90 to 100 days under cooler 
temperatures encountered by late fall crops in the 
Northern States and the winter crop in the Southern 
es and California. Prime marketable size for 
bunching, l\ to 2 inches (3.2 to 5.0 cm I, attained in 
90 t" i lays as a spring and Bummer crop but requir- 
ing 100 to [20 days as a winter and early spring crop 
in the Southern States and < tolifornia. 

PLANT 

P 2, 17. and 18 

Large, at prime marketable 9tage of maturity the 
average weight is approximately 6.2 ounces (175 gm.) 
hut may range from 4.5 to 8.8 ounces I L25 to 250 gm.), 
depending on amount <>f foliage and length of root. 
I lallj 12 to 16 inches (30 to 40 cm.) in average height 
mill average Bpread of 16 to I9)j im-lic- • l" t<> 50 cm.), 
or from 1.0 to 1.6 times as wide as tall. 

LEAVES 

Numerous, average 9 to L3, seldom less than 8 or 
more than 15; constitute from i'i to 18 percent of the 
total plant weight of spring and summer crops and 30 
3 pi ent of late full or w inter crops. 



Y", Ail, typicallj light green, ranging from 

Cerro Green 22 L 5 to Peridot 22 L 6) and Art Green 
22 I. 7 i with older mature leaves darker green and 
approximately Forest Green (23 L 6). Large; avei 
length of 7 to 9 inches (19 to 24 cm. : greatest 
width of blade usually equal to or stightrj larger than 
blade length, which is 10 to 15 percent longer than the 
petiole. Divisions medium to large in size. 

I'I I loll 

Lighter green than blade <li\ ision, about Moss < Ireen 
(21 I. 2) to Parrol Green (21 L 6); medium to long, 
.". . in s i nHii-. ii.", in -.'ll cm. : stout; average width of 
four thirty-seconds to Beven thirty-seconds of an inch 
(3 to 5.5 mm.) at midlength; &\ erage thickness slightly 
less than width; 30 to 50 times as long as wide. 

KECK IND < until 

Medium to large, neck usually five-eighths to six- 
eighths of an inch (16 to 19 mm.) in a^ erage diameter at 
smallest point, but increases until at point of attach- 
ment of petiole bases to root collar) the average 
diameter is | to 1 inch (19 to 25 nun.' with some ol 
the larger roots having collar diameter of one thirteen- 
thirty-seconds to one sixteen-thirty-seconds of an inch 
16 to 38mm i. Collar slightlj to much sunken. 



Grows almost completely underground; when first 
usable, three-quarters of an inch ' I 9 cm. I in diameter, 
the roots are long and very slender with a long pointed 
base. At prime marketable Btage of maturity, I . to 
■_> inches 1.2 to 5.0 cm.), the shoulders arc square or 
rounded, sides taper in a straight line to a long tapered 
base with a medium taproot and a medium number of 
medium-depth, fairrj shallow horizontal depressions in 
1 1 M- root surface, Midlength diameter is from 60 to 
85 percent of the crown diameter; average length ia 
from 7 to 8 inches I s to 22 cm.) under ordinary 



DESCRIPTIONS OF TYPES OF PRINCIPAL AMERICAN VARIETIES OF ORANGE-FLESHED CARROTS 



conditions, but in California, the average reached 10 to 
11 inches (25 to 28 cm.) and at Norfolk, Va., was as 
short as 5% inches (13 cm.); from 4.0 to 6.7 times as 
long as thick at the crown; average weight from 2.6 to 
4.6 oimces (75 to 130 gm.) but averaged only 1.8 
ounces (53 gm.) one spring at Norfolk, whereas one of 
the California crops averaged 9.4 oimces (268 gm.). 

Skin color when shoulders appear above ground 
ranges from 14 L 1 to 14 L 7 according to exposure; 
skin color below ground on prime marketable roots 
when moist, about 10 F 10 to 10 C 10; cortex (phloem) 
about 10 B 11, and core (xylem) more yellow, ranging 
from 10 K 6 to 10 K 9. 

Core large, comprising from 65 to 72 percent of the 



crown diameter when grown as a spring or summer 
crop in the Northern States and 40 to 60 percenl 
when grown hi the late fall or during the winter hi tin- 
Southern States and California. 

SYNONYMS 

Long Red; Long Red Surrey; Long Scarlet; Red 

Surrev; and Surrey. 

HISTORY 

Although the present type is probably an improve- 
ment in color and smoothness, the descriptive name 
appears hi the earliest English printed records and 
the long yellow, long white, and long purple types 
were known to the ancients. 



Publication $61 I s I) partmen) ol Agriculture 



Plate 17 



LONG ORANGE CARROT 





i type oj plants oj Long Orangt carrot at (A) first marketable stag* oj maturity, spring 1934', and 
(B) at ■ spring 1932, grown at Arlirt {ton, Va., ' . Fourth rootfrom left in A and first in H 

I 



Miscellaneous Publication 361, U. S. Department of Agriculture 

LONG ORANGE CARROT 



Plate li 



t r m 



l>( 



kW Hill 



I * 




A 










•v^W'Y 




f 



A, Random sample of mature roots of Long Orange carrot grown in fall 1931 at Tsfor/olJ^, Va. 3 . B, accept' 

able range in size and shape of prime marketable roots of Long Orange grown at Davis, Calif., in spring 
1933, X %■ 



w 



Ml-. ; OUS PUBLICATION 361, 1 B DEPARTMENT Ol AGRICULTURE 

()\ HEART 









BRIEF 


< ii \k \( 


1 i:UIZ\ 1 l«»\ 










1. 


y limited to 


the producl ion oi 


roots i 


i ir -lock feed. 










Mida 


ason 


in maturity with 1 - 


si rong 


foliage. Eloots 


short-conic 


or 


heart- 


shaped 


with blunt 


end, 


2 to 2 


. inches thick by 


:; tn 1 


inches long, and 


w itli medium-orange, 


coarse 


flesh and j 


ellow 


er core. 

















\l>\l»l \Ull.l I ^ \M) I SE 

( focheart is capable of producing large tonnage on the 
-lull l<>\\ m- ii i ii I hea\ ier soils, and because ol this charac- 
teristic and its low quality it- present-day use is largely 
limited i<> the production of roots for stock feed. It is 
-till planted in some home gardens and is grown to a 
limited exienl by tnarkel gardeners for the San Fran- 
cisco market. 

SKVSON 

Midseason maturity, reaching I finches (3.2cm.) in 
diameter in 70 to 80 days from date of germination 
when grown as n spring or summer crop, but requiring 
80 to 100 days under cooler temperatures encountered 
h\ late fall crops in the Northern States and the w inter 
crop in the Southern States and California. Prime 
marketable size, 1% to 2 inches (3.7 to 5 cm.), for 
bunching attained in 75 t<> 90 days as a spring and 
summer crop, bul requirii g " l| to 110 daj - as a « i 
and earlj spring crop in the Southern States and 
( Jalifornia 

PLANT 

(PI-. 2, 19, 20, 21, and 22) 

Largi at prime marketable stage of maturity the 
average weighl is approximately 6.2 ounces (175 gm.) 

bul maj range fr I 5 to 8 s ounces 1 125 to 250 gm.), 

depending largely on amounl ol Foliage. Usually 12 
to 18 inches (30 to 15 cm I in average height and 14 
to 19! inches (35 to 50 cm.) in average spread, or from 
I ii tn 1 .6 times as w ide as tall. 



Numerous, generally i<t to 1 1. seldom less than 8 or 
more than 16; constitute from 25 to i" pi rcenl of the 
total plant weighl of spring and Bummer crops and 20 
to 30 percent of late fall or w inter crops. 

Ill Mil 

Young growth typically lighl green, ranging from 
l. 5 to Peridot (22 I. 6 and An Gi 
I. : with older mature leaves darker green and 
approxu I orest Gn ■ !3 L 6 Lorgi 

tha of 7 - to 22 • i : greatest width 



'•I blade usually equal to or slightly larger than blade 
length which is to 25 percenl longer than the petiole. 
I )i\ isions medium to large in size. 

PETIOLE 

Lighter green than blade divisions, about Moss 
Green (2] I. 2) to Parrot I rreen (2] L 6); medium to 
long, 6 I to 8)4 inches (17 to '-'I cm.); stout, average 
width of six sixty-fourths to twelve sixty-fourths of an 
inch (2.5 to 5.0 mm.) at mid length, average tliic] 
almost equal to width; 10 to 60 times as long as wide. 

NECK ami COLLAR 

Medium to large, neck usually nineteen thirty- 
seconds to twenty-five thirty-seconds of an inch (15 
to l'ii nun.) in average diameter at smallest point but 
increases until .-it point of attachment of petiole bases to 
rool (collar) the average diameter is twenty-one 
thirty-seconds to thirty-five thirty-seconds of an inch 
(17 to 28 mm.), Collar medium to much sunken. 



Grows almost completely underground; when first 
usable, I ; inches (3 2 cm I in diameter, the roots are 
short-conic with :i Bhort, tapered base, but as they 
mature the straight-line taper of the sides becomes con- 
vex and the base Bloping to rounded. At maturity the 
shoulders are square, the sides slightrj convex, and the 
base short-tapered or rounded, resulting in a short, thick- 
conical or heart-shaped root with medium thick taproot 
and :i medium number <>f medium t<> long, medium t<> 
deep horizontal depressions in the root Burface. With 
;i crown diameter >.i 2 to 2 in< b< - 5 to 6 5 cm I, 
midlength diameter i- from 82 to 95 percent of the 
emu n diameter; .-i\ erage length is from 2 to 3 inches 
7 to 9 cm ■ except in California, where it averages 1 
to i | inches (10 i<> 12 cm ! : from I 2 t<> 1.7 times as 
long as thick at the crown; average weight from 3 5 to 
ii ounces hum to 170 gm I with California roots aver- 
aging up to 7 ounces (200 gm.). 

Shin color when shoulders appear :ih<>\«' ground 
ranges from 14 L 1 to 14 L 7. depending upon exposure; 
-kin color below ground on prune marketable roots 
when moist about 10 I 9; cortex (phloem) about 10 J 8, 



_ 



DESCRIPTIONS OF TYPES OF PRINCIPAL AMERICAN VARIETIES OF ORANGE-FLESHED CARROTS 41 

and core (xylem) usually more yellow, from 9 H 8 to Guerande, Half Long Guerande, Half Long Stump 

9 L 8, although it may be as orange as the phloem. Guerande, Half Long Stump Rooted Guerande, Large 

Core large, comprising from 60 to 70 percent of the Scarlet Stump Rooted, and Norfolk Gem. 
crown diameter when grown as a spring and summer 
crop and 50 to 60 percent when grown in late fall or HISTORY 

winter. 

SYNONYMS Oxheart or Guerande is an introduction from Fiance 

and was first listed in the United States in 1884 by 
Earh- Gem, Early Guerande, Early Oxheart, Gem, W. Atlee Burpee & Co. and by James J. H. Gregory. 






tlaneooa Publication 361, U. S. Department of Agricultun 



Plate 1< 



OXHtART CARROT 




1 




B 



Acceptable in I .; oj Oxh rot when (A) first marketable, spring 1934, and (B) prime marketable 

'.ofmaturix • Arlington, Va., Compare with plate 20, A, and note the increase in 

roundness of the ti/-> uit/i maturity. 



Miscellaneous Publication 361, U. S. Department of Agriculture 



Plate 20 



A 



OXHEART CARROT 





Acceptable range in type of mature Oxheart carrot: A, Spring crop 1932 at Arlington, Va. : B, fall crop 1931 

at7<iorfol\, Va., X ' • 



Mi . Publication 361, i x Department oi Agriculture 



Plate 21 



( V\M1 ART CARROT 









A table range in tv/v o/OWiccirt wrmt at maturity: A. Sjmng croja 1933; B, spring crop 1932 at Davis, 

Calif., 



Miscellaneous Publication 361, U. S. Department of Agriculture 



Plate 22 



OXHEART CARROT 




_ w w %5 v# 





Random sample of good strain of Oxhcart carrot grown in spring 1Q34 at Arlington, \\i., showing effect o/ 
age on size and shape, X \.-.->. Bis 1 month older than A and shows the rounding out of the tip with increased 

age and the roughness caused by high temperatures and second growth. 



LITERATI RE CITED 



1 Bailey, !.. II. 

1889. ON THE IN FL! [N CONDITIONS UPON 

Tin riNG "i .-i i D8. N. Y. (Cornell) 

l - Sta, Bull. 7, ).|). [29]-71, illus. 

2 Barnes W I 

-"Ml. ENVTBONMENTAL I I i OBS ON 

i.m.u i ii nm | (.1 i > RBOT8. N. Y. 

\ r. Expt. Si:,. M, in. 186, 36 pp., 
illus. 

3 Bills, Charles l , and McDonald, lm\n- (. 

THE CAROTENE I ON I I N I "I I I N \ \IUI I i 

( abbots. Scii e 76 108. 

1 I'.! \ II 

1931. TEMPEBATI HI 1VI1 IM.WT c.lcnWTII. in. CARROT. 

Meld. f. Norges Landbrukshoiskole 11 
KM), illus. 1 1 1 ■ Norwegian. Summary in 
English, pp '.'7 99 
i boi i b, H. I... and Bbow \, Ii. E. 

1935. MAGNE8H U Dl in n Ml J , I. THE \ u.i I. OP MAG 
M -M M COMPOUNDS IN VEGE1 I PRODUCTION 

in Virginia, Va. Truck Expt. Sim. Mull B9, 
pp. 1250 1288, illus. 
| ,i br, 8 I , Bubbell, P. ( , and Borthwick, H. A, 

1936 BTUDIES ON rHE INHER] I \ Kl I 01 I IROTENE in 

i ibroi s, \ 1 1 .' r. Soc. Bort, Bci. Proc. 
S2 (v. 33 508 511. 
: Garner, W. W., and Allard, II. A. 

1920. EFFECT OP THE RELATIVE LENGTH M \Nh 

NIGHT AND OTHER F/ IS Ol THE BN^ [RONMENT 

i.n GROWTH <N|> REPRODDl PION IN ri \i- 

Jour. \ ■ It a arch 18: 553 606, illus. 



8 II ARRINGTON, ' lEORGE T. 

1923 DSE "I Mil kn UN.. rEMPERATURES IN "I 111. 

RHiNATioN "i - Jour. Aur. Research 

23 295 332, illus. 

9 K wski, Felix 

1927. TEMPERATURE RELATIONS ro GERMINATION "I 
VBGB1 BED Alii.r. SoC. Bort. Sci. PtOC 

L926 23 176 184 

III! 



1927. ri.Mi-l.u \ I 1 in ALTERNATION \N|> GERMINATION 
OF VEGETABL] SEED \< ' 8 Bot. PoloniaC 

5: 71 7s 
ii Mai rz, A. J., and I'm l, M. Rea. 

193 u noNARi "i ■ ■ >i.< >h. 207 pp., illus. N. Y. 

i-' Miller, Julian C, C ran, F. D. and Garrison, O B 

1935. BOME FACTORS mm. iin LOH IN . 

Am. i Soc Borl Bi Pi • 1934 31 32 
583 

13 Morsi . Lester L. 

1924. field notes on carrots Ed. 2, 24pp., illus. Ban 
I rancisco, < !alif. 

l l Km. mi , T. F. 

1927 STANDARD DESCRIPTIONS OF VEGETABLES 
\ N I) c ABBOTS. \ GUI i'l. 1 1" SEI OH 

Canada Depl Vgri. Bull. 82, (n.s.) 36 pp., illus. 

(15) Tracy, \\ . \\ '., Jr. 

1903 ii- i "i lmerii in varieties "i vegeo 

POH TIIK YEARS 1901 \NI> 1902, I. 8. 

Dept. Agr. Bur. Plant. Indus. Mull. 21, 102 pp. 



INDEX TO VARIETAL NAMES 

(Th? names of the principal or standard varieties are shown in capitals) 



Coreless. See Nantes. 

Coreless Chantenay. See Red Core Chantenay. 

DANVERS 

Danvers Half Long. See Danvers. 

Danvers Half Long Improved. See Danvers. 

Danvers Half Long Orange. See Danvers. 

Danvers Half Long Scarlet. See Danvers. 

Danvers Improved. See Danvers. 

Danvers Intermediate. See Danvers. 

Dutch Horn Blunt. See Scarlet Horn. 

Earliest French Forcing. See French Forcing. 

Earliest Red Horn. See French Forcing. 

Earliest Scarlet French Forcing. See French Forcing. 

Earliest Short Horn. See French Forcing. 

Early Dutch Horn. See Scarlet Horn. 

Early French Forcing. See French Forcing. 

Early French Short Horn. See French Forcing. 

Early Gem. See Oxheart. 

Early Golden Ball. See French Forcing. 

Early Guerande. See Oxheart. 

Early Half Long Nantes. See Nantes. 

Early Nantes. See Nantes. 

Early Oxheart. See Oxheart. 

Early Scarlet. See Scarlet Horn. 

Early Scarlet Dutch Horn. See Scarlet Horn. 

Early Scarlet French Horn. See French Forcing. 

Early Scarlet Short Horn. See French Forcing. 

Early Short Horn. See Scarlet Horn. 

Early Short Scarlet. See French Forcing and Scarlet 

Horn. 
Early Very Short Horn Scarlet. See French Forcing. 
Exhibition Danvers. See Danvers. 
Extra Early Scarlet. See French Forcing. 
French Early Forcing. See French Forcing. 

FRENCH FORCING 

French Forcing Horn. See French Forcing. 

French Horn. See French Forcing. 

French Red Forcing. See French Forcing. 

Gem. See Oxheart. 

Golden Ball. See French Forcing. 

Golden Ball Forcing. See French Forcing. 

Goldinhart. See Red Core Chantenay. 

Guerande. See Oxheart. 

Half Long Coreless Nantes. See Nantes. 

Half Long Danvers. See Danvers. 



Page 



28 



10 



Half Long Guerande. See Oxlieart. 

Half Long Nantes. See Nantes. 

Half Long Orange. See Danvers. 

Half Long Scarlet. See Nantes. 

Half Long Scarlet Nantes Stump Rooted. See Nantes 

Half Long Scarlet Stump Rooted. See Nantes. 

Half Long Stump Guerande. See Oxheart. 

Half Long Stump Rooted Guerande. See Oxheart. 

Half Long Stump Rooted Nantes. See Nantes. 

IMPERATOR 

Improved Danvers Half Long. See Danvers. 
Improved Nantes. See Nantes. 
Large Scarlet Stump Rooted. See Oxheart. 
Lompoc. See Imperator. 

LONG ORANGE 

Long Red. See Long Orange. 
Long Red Surrey. See Long Orange. 
Long Scarlet. See Long Orange. 
Market Garden. See Danvers. 

NANTES 

Nantes Half long. See Nantes. 
Nantes Half Long Scarlet. See Nantes. 
Nantes Half Long Stump Rooted. See Nantes. 
Nantes Stump Rooted. See Nantes. 
Norfolk Gem. See Oxheart. 

OXHEART 

Orange Danvers. See Danvers. 
Prize Danvers. See Danvers. 
RED CORE CHANTENAY 
Red Surrey. See Long Orange. 
Rotheroz. See Red Core Chantenay. 
Ruby Core. See Red Core Chantenay. 

SCARLET HORN 

Selected Danvers. See Danvers. 

Selected Half Long Danvers. See Danvers. 
Short Horn. See French Forcing. 
Short Horn. See Scarlet Horn. 
Stump Rooted. See Nantes. 
Stump Rooted Half Long. Sec Danvers. 
Surrey. See Long Orange. 
Very Early Scarlet. See French Forcing. 
Very Early Scarlet Forcing. See French Forcing. 
Very Early Short Horn Scarlet. See French Forcing. 

17 



Page 



32 



36 



16 



40 



22 



13 



ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
WHEN THIS PUBLICATION WAS LAST PRINTED 



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This publication i- a contribution from 



Plant Ina 

■ and VegetabU < bops and I ' 



E. ( '. A I Ml I I I. < 

II. P. Gould, Principal II lit dturisi 

ill ( lull IJt .